SC From A to Z

From Hilton Head to Caesars Head, and from the Lords Proprietors to Hootie and the Blowfish, historian Walter Edgar mines the riches of the South Carolina Encyclopedia to bring you South Carolina from A to Z.

South Carolina From A to Z
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"S" is for Slave Codes. South Carolina’s earliest formal code of law regarding slaves, established in 1690,borrowed heavily from the statutes governing slavery in Barbados. It codified the institution of chattel slavery in South Carolina. Although disallowed by the Lords Proprietors, a similar code was enacted in 1696 and revised in 1712. The enforcement of the revised code was difficult and frequently haphazard.

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"P" is for Porter-Gaud School. Located in Charleston, Porter-Gaud had its beginning just after the Civil War. In 1867 the Reverend Anthony Toomer Porter launched the Episcopal Holy Communion Church Institute, a school for white boys. Called Porter Academy after 1882, the school added a military department in 1887. At Porter’s death in 1902, drills in military tactics and football were part of the curriculum along with Latin, modern languages, science, and mathematics. In the 1950s the school faced declining enrollment.

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"P" is for Port Royal Naval Station. The Union fleet’s conquest of the Sea Islands in 1861 was the beginning of more than a century of U.S. naval involvement with Port Royal Sound. With nearly thirty feet of water above the bar at all tides, Port Royal Sound is the deepest natural harbor on the Atlantic seaboard south of New York. In 1876 many of the capital ships of the U.S. Navy’s Atlantic Fleet spent the winter at Port Royal to avoid ice in northern ports. During the Spanish American War, the Port Royal Station was one of the principal support stations for U.S.

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'M" is for Milliken & Company. In 1865 Seth Milliken and his business partner William Deering became successful jobbers of woolen textiles in Portland, Maine. Deering left the partnership in 1869, but the company’s name remained Deering Milliken until 1976 when it became Milliken & Company. By 1920, the company had an interest in forty-two South Carolina textile mills and was the selling agent for southern textile mills. Roger Milliken, the grandson of the founder moved to Spartanburg in 1954.

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"M" is for Milliken, Roger (1915-2010). Businessman, political activist. During his long career Milliken built his family’s textile business into a burgeoning textile corporation known for its innovative management and technological prowess. He also played a major role in South Carolina’s transition to Republican dominance, supporting conservative issues and candidates around the state. When Milliken obtained control of the family business, he moved to Spartanburg in 1954 and also started to concentrate the company’s operations in the South Carolina Piedmont.

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"M" is for Miller, Thomas Ezekiel (1849-1938). Political leader, college president. A native of Beaufort, Miller graduated from Lincoln University in Pennsylvania. Returning to South Carolina he opened a law practice in 1875. Miller served in the South Carolina House (1874-1880) and Senate (1880-1882). In 1888 he won a contested election to the U.S. House. In 1895 he represented Beaufort in the Constitutional Convention where he eloquently, but unsuccessfully fought the efforts to disenfranchise thousands of African Americans.

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"M" is for Miller, Stephen Decatur (1787-1838). Congressman, governor, U.S. Senator. Miller was elected to Congress in 1816. From 1822 to 1828 he was a member of the South Carolina Senate where he was an early leader in the nullification movement. In 1824 he offered resolutions setting forth the strict states’-rights constructionist argument and declared federal internal improvements and protective tariffs unconstitutional. The Senate passed the “Miller Resolutions, “ but the House did not.

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"L" is for Lyttelton, William Henry (1724-1808). Governor. Lyttelton began his career as a colonial administrator when he was appointed governor of South Carolina in 1755. He arrived in Charleston in June 1756. Lyttelton’s tenure was marked by frontier warfare with the Cherokee Indians and by political and constitutional conflicts with the Commons House of Assembly. In 1759, he negotiated a treaty with the Cherokees at Fort Prince George.

"L" is for Lynching

Jul 10, 2018
South Carolina From A to Z
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"L" is for Lynching. The origin of the word “lynching” has several explanations. One is that the term derives from Lynches Creek, South Carolina. Lynches Creek was known as a meeting site for the Regulators, a group of vigilantes who used violence against their opponents. This definition and one about a Virginia justice of the peace refer to forms of frontier vigilantism.

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"L" is for Lynches River. Originating at the confluence of two nameless streams in North Carolina, the Lynches River crosses the state line in the Piedmont and flows nearly its entire 175-mile length through South Carolina. From a relatively straight path in the pine forests it becomes a slower, braided waterway as it meanders through wetlands fed by a number of tributaries. At the end of its course it is joined by the waters of the Great Sparrow Swamp and then empties into the Pee Dee River.

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"H" is for Huguenot Church (Charleston). Located at 140 Church Street, the French Protestant (Huguenot) Church was the first Gothic Revival ecclesiastical building erected in Charleston. Construction began in 1844. It was designed by Edward B. White and is built of brick finished in stucco. In color and scale it blends harmoniously with the city’s built environment. The church was damaged in 1864 during the siege of Charleston and nearly destroyed during the 1886 earthquake.

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"H" is for Huger, Isaac (1743-1797). Soldier. Huger began his military career as an officer in the South Carolina expedition against the Cherokees. With the onset of the Revolution he was appointed a lieutenant colonel in the South Carolina militia. Huger was promoted to colonel and later commanded the First and Fifth South Carolina Regiments. In 1779, he was promoted to brigadier general in the Continental army. He fought and was wounded at the Battle of Stono Ferry and commanded the South Carolina and Georgia militia at the siege of Savannah.

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"C" is for Coker, Elizabeth Boatwright (1909-1993). Writer. At Converse College, Coker was editor of the school’s literary magazine. Between 1950 and 1991, she published nine novels in the genre of the historical romance, allowing her to exploit her deep interest in all periods of the southern and South Carolina experience. Her first novel, Daughter of Strangers (1950), was a dramatic treatment of racial identity set in antebellum New Orleans and the South Carolina lowcountry. It remained on the New York Times best-seller list for six months.

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"C" is for Coker, David Robert (1870-1938). Businessman, plant breeder, philanthropist. Following his graduation from the University of South Carolina, Coker managed the J.L. Coker and Company. Illness led him to withdraw from the business and to focus on his first experiments with plant breeding. He saw a need not only for better seed to provide more productive crops but also for a change in the attitude from traditional to more modern methods of farming. This dual focus led to the subsequent development of the Coker’s Pedigreed Seed Company in 1913 with Coker as president.

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"C" is for Coker, Charles Westfield (1879-1931). Businessman, philanthropist, social reformer. At an early age, Coker became involved in his family’s various business enterprises. In 1899, when the Cokers organized the Southern Novelty Company in Hartsville, he became its first treasurer and chief salesman. In 1918 he became president of the company. It was Charles Coker who brought modern industrial and managerial practice to the family-controlled business, which changed its name to Sonoco Products Company.

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"C" is for Clyburn, James E. (b. 1940). Congressman. A native of Sumter, Clyburn graduated from South Carolina State College. He has had an extensive public career. From 1971 to 1974, he served on Governor John West’s staff. In 1974, Governor West appointed him as South Carolina human affairs commissioner—a position he held for eighteen years under both Democratic and Republican governors. In 1992 Clyburn was elected to Congress from the newly reconfigured “majority minority” Sixth District. In 1998 he was elected chair of the Congressional Black Caucus.

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"B" is for Brown, Lucy Hughes (1863-1911). Physician. A native of North Carolina, Brown completed her medical training at the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania. After practicing medicine in North Carolina, she moved to Charleston and became the first black female physician in the state. She contributed to the establishment of the Cannon Hospital and Training School for Nurses in 1897, which was later, renamed McClennan-Banks Hospital. At this hospital, she headed the department of nursing training.

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"B" is for Brown, James (1933-2006). Musician. Born in Barnwell County, Brown began his career in Augusta in the 1950s when he formed the Flames—the first of a series of backing bands that would contribute to the evolution of his trademark sound. His first hit came with the 1956 release of “Please, Please, Please.” A consummate showman, Brown gave his audiences the total experience of singing, dancing, and showbiz spectacle. His appearances recorded as Live at the Apollo are regarded as the peak of his live shows.

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"B" is for Brown, Edgar Allan (1888-1975). Legislator. At the age of sixteen Brown learned shorthand and became a stenographer. In 1910 he passed the state bar exam. He represented Barnwell County in the House of Representatives (1921-1926) and served one term as Speaker. Brown was elected to the South Carolina Senate in 1928 and remained there until his retirement in 1972. Politically, Brown was one of the most powerful men in state government. For thirty years (1942-1972) he was both president pro tempore of the Senate and chairman of the finance committee.

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"B" is for Broughton, Thomas (d.1737). Legislator, lieutenant governor. By the 1690s Broughton had immigrated to South Carolina from the West Indies. He quickly became involved in the Indian trade and used his connection as the son-in-law of Governor Nathaniel Johnson to advance his position. Broughton acquired four plantations, including Mulberry on the Cooper River where he built a massive, Jacobean-style brick mansion dubbed “Mulberry Castle.” He was first elected to the Commons House in 1696 and later served as its Speaker.

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"B" is for Bryan, Hugh (1699-1753). Planter, evangelist. Born of the colony’s southern frontier, Bryan was captured by Indians during the Yamassee War. After his release, he settled in St. Helena’s Parish where he became a leading rice planter, cattle raiser, and slaveholder. Bryan became an enthusiastic follower of the evangelist George Whitefield and, under his tutelage, began to apply religious writings of contemporary events. Bryan saw the Stono Rebellion, the 1749 Charleston fire, droughts, and outbreaks of epidemic diseases as God’s displeasure with South Carolina.

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"L" is for Lumpkin, Grace (ca. 1896-1980). Writer, social activist. A native of Georgia, Lumpkin’s family moved to Columbia in 1900. She earned a teacher’s certificate from Brenau College and then held various positions as a teacher, home demonstration agent, and social worker. In 1925 she moved to New York where she took a job with The World Tomorrow, a pacifist publication. After covering a Communist-led textile strike she went to work for a Soviet-affiliated trading company.

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"B" is for Burke, Aedanus (1743-1802). Jurist, congressman. A native of Ireland, Burke arrived in South Carolina in 1775 and served in the militia during the Revolution. In 1780 he was elected a judge of the Court of Common Pleas and General Sessions. He was captured at the fall of Charleston and spent sixteen months in captivity. In 1788, Burke was a leading opponent of the proposed U.S. Constitution, but on its ratification he pledged his support for the new government. He was elected as an anti-Federalist to the First Congress.

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"B" is for Bull, William, II (1710-1791). Lieutenant governor. Educated in England and the Netherlands, Bull was a member of the Commons House (1736-1749) and, on occasion, its speaker. In 1749 he was appointed to the Council and ten years later became lieutenant governor until his political career ended in 1775. During that period Bull was acting governor on five occasions—serving for a total of eight years. After refusing to sign the oath of allegiance to the revolutionary government, he was banished from the state and went into exile in England.

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"B" is for Bull, Stephen (d. 1800). Soldier, legislator. Descended from one of the first families of South Carolina, Stephen Bull was the nephew of Lieutenant Governor William Bull, Jr. Bull represented Prince William’s Parish in the Commons House of Assembly. On the eve of the American Revolution, he was a colonel commanding the Beaufort District militia regiment. Unlike most members of his family, he supported the American cause. In 1778 he was promoted to brigadier general and led his regiment on the ill-fated American campaign against British East Florida.

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"H" is for Huger, Daniel Elliott (1779-1854). Jurist, U.S. senator. From 1803 to 1819 Huger, a Charleston lawyer, represented St. Andrew’s Parish in the South Carolina House of Representatives where he gained a reputation as one its ablest and most respected members. In 1819 he was elected judge of the Court of General Sessions and Common Pleas and served until he resigned in 1830 to return to politics. A Unionist delegate to the Nullification Convention, he strongly opposed the Ordinance of Secession. Following John C. Calhoun’s resignation from the U.S.

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"H" is for Huck, Christian (d. 1780). Soldier. Christian Huck was a loyalist captain of dragoons under Banastre Tarlton. A Philadelphia lawyer, Huck was known for viciousness and his intense hatred of all patriots, especially Scots-Irish Presbyterians. He commanded British outposts around Camden and participated in actions involving Tarleton’s Legions. In June 1780 he and his command burned the houses and plantations of known patriots in the Catawba Valley of Upper South Carolina. In response, a loosely organized group of five hundred up countrymen set out to destroy Huck’s force.

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"H" is for Hub City Writers Project. A literary arts co-op founded in Spartanburg County in 1995—and modeled after the Depression-era Federal Writers Project—the Hub City Writers Project marshaled the talents of writers across South Carolina and beyond to create a series of books characterized by a strong sense of place. The non-profit profit organization was shepherded in its early years by Wofford College poet John Lane, journalists Betsy Teter and Gary Anderson, and graphics designer/photographer Mark Olencki.

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"H" is for Howard, Frank James (1909-1996). Football coach. After graduating from the University of Alabama in 1931, Howard accepted a position as assistant coach at Clemson under head coach Jess Neely. When Neely departed in 1940, Howard was chosen as his replacement. As head coach, Howard directed the Clemson football program for the next thirty years (1940-1969). His teams compiled a 165-118-12 record, earned eight conference championships (two Southern, six Atlantic Coast) and appeared is six postseason bowl games.

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"H" is for Horseshoe (Columbia). Deriving its name from the U-shaped orientation of its nineteenth and early twentieth-century buildings massed around a central green space, the Horseshoe constitutes the historic heart of the University of South Carolina’s Columbia campus. It features the capital city’s greatest concentration of historic buildings. The plan for the “college grounds”—as it was then known—came from a competition in which Robert Mills submitted a design inspired by styles associated with colleges in the Northeast.  Construction began in 1803.

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