Copyright 2018 Fresh Air. To see more, visit Fresh Air.

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Copyright 2018 Fresh Air. To see more, visit Fresh Air.

TERRY GROSS, HOST:

Geoff Nunberg (@GeoffNunberg) is a linguist who teaches at the School of Information at the University of California at Berkeley.

"Great Britain and the United States are two nations separated by a common language."

Copyright 2018 NPR. To see more, visit http://www.npr.org/.

PRESIDENT OBAMA: (Cheers and applause.) Thank you. Thank you so much. Thank you very much. Thank you. Thank you so much. (Laughter.)

AUDIENCE: Yes, we can! Yes, we can! Yes, we can!

A federal jury has found Marq Vincent Perez, 26, guilty of a hate crime in the arson attack on a mosque in Victoria, Texas, in January 2017. Perez, who is set to be sentenced in October, faces up to 40 years in prison.

When fire devastated the Victoria Islamic Center last year, an outpouring of support followed, with neighboring Jewish and Christian congregations offering to host Muslim services in their buildings.

Iraqi officials flew to Tehran this week to try to cut a deal with Iran for electricity, attempting to defuse potentially destabilizing anti-government demonstrations spreading through the country's southern provinces.

The protests started a week ago amid anger over unemployment, corruption and lack of access to basic services such as power. Iraq's health ministry announced Monday that eight demonstrators had been killed in the unrest. Iraqi police say dozens of security forces have been wounded.

CTE has been part of the national lexicon in the U.S. since the 2015 movie Concussion dramatized the discovery of this degenerative brain disease among football players.

Most teens today own a smartphone and go online every day, and about a quarter of them use the internet "almost constantly," according to a 2015 report by the Pew Research Center.

Now a study published Tuesday in JAMA suggests that such frequent use of digital media by adolescents might increase their odds of developing symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Japan and the European Union have signed a massive trade deal that creates an open-trade zone for more than 600 million people. The EU and Japan account for about one-third of GDP worldwide.

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Giulnara Asanova and her husband remember when they decided to leave Crimea. 

"We sat down at the table and decided what to do," she says, speaking Russian through a translator. "We decided to save our children, save our grandchildren. We saw the tanks, we saw weapons and military.” 

That was in 2014.

Giulnara Asanova and her husband remember when they decided to leave Crimea. 

"We sat down at the table and decided what to do," she says, speaking Russian through a translator. "We decided to save our children, save our grandchildren. We saw the tanks, we saw weapons and military.” 

That was in 2014.

Meet Goldman Sachs' new CEO: DJ D-Sol

6 hours ago

(Markets Edition) Fed Chair Jerome Powell is set to begin two days of testimony on Capitol Hill, and investors are watching closely. We'll talk to Gabriela Santos — global market strategist with JP Morgan Funds — about what we should expect. Afterwards, we'll discuss Goldman Sachs' new CEO, David Solomon, and why the news is so significant, and then we'll explore the growing problems restaurants have in finding enough staffing.

On Wednesday, we get second-quarter earnings from Alcoa, the major aluminum manufacturer. And that may offer clues about how the escalating trade battle is playing out for domestic manufacturers and workers now that tariffs on aluminum and steel are a reality. The United States is now charging 10 percent tariffs on imported aluminum from Canada, the European Union and other countries. This puts Alcoa’s U.S.-made aluminum at a competitive advantage in the domestic market. But it may not help reopen aluminum plants that were already shuttered, thanks in part to low-cost foreign competition.

The National Restaurant association projects that sales will grow by 4 percent this year. Celebrity chefs and Instagram foodie streams all point to an industry on the upswing. But staffing restaurants isn’t easy these days. Susan Spicer runs three restaurants in New Orleans, and says this is in part because her industry gets a bad rap — long hours, little pay, substance abuse, harassment. She spends a lot of time fighting that image, but still has trouble finding people to work for her.

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